The UK Government has introduced a range of schemes designed to support and encourage tax efficient investing. There are various ways you can reduce or shelter your tax liabilities by investing through one or more of the following tax efficient opportunities including; ISAs, SIPPs, Venture Capital Trusts, BPR Investments, SEIS Investments and EIS Investments. Find out which is the UK’s most tax efficient scheme and how you can achieve up to 64% tax relief.
An ISA is a scheme that offers individuals the ability to grow their savings, which can be held in cash, shares and unit trusts, tax-free. These accounts are exempt from income tax and capital gains tax on the investment returns, and no tax is payable on money withdrawn from the scheme. Ultimately, ISAs allow individuals to create a portfolio that’s sheltered from the taxman. ISA’s don’t need to be declared on tax returns and can be withdrawn whenever needed. The amount you can invest each tax year is decided by the government; for the 2017–18 tax year, the allowance was £20,000. In many cases, it costs no more to hold cash and investments inside an ISA than to hold them outside, so investors can receive these benefits for free. Since the income is not taxable it does not count for age-related personal income tax allowance reduction (although this age-related element is being phased out)
Types of ISAs
1. Cash ISA
2. Stocks and Shares ISA
3. Help to Buy ISA
4. Junior ISA
2 Pension Investments
Individual tax relief on pension contributions is an established pillar of the UK personal taxation framework - it will actually celebrate its centenary in 2021, having first been introduced in the 1921 Finance Act. The intention of the tax incentive is to encourage you to defer cash whilst in work to fund a more comfortable retirement.
Two of the more innovative pension products - Small Self-Administered Schemes (SSASs) and Self-invested personal pensions (SIPPs) - are summarised below.
Types of pension investment
1. Small Self-Administered Schemes (SSASs)
SSASs were created specifically for SMEs and offer a range of features that appeal to business owners. A SSAS is a multiple member, collective single trust, with the ability to add up to 11 members. Within the scheme, each of these members has an individual notional fund, or pot. Contributions to individual funds are subject to the annual and lifetime contribution limits listed above. As well as these individual member funds, there is also the potential to create another fund within the SSAS – this is the General Unallocated Fund (GUF).
Subject to conditions, a SSAS can lend up to 50% of its net assets back to the sponsoring employer. Furthermore, a SSAS can lend up to 100% of its net assets to an unconnected party. A SSAS also has the widest range of investments available to any UK pension scheme, including shares in UK companies, HMRC-approved investments, and commercial property and land.
From a tax perspective, growth in the value of assets held in a SSAS are not subject to capital gains tax (CGT) and family members can become members of a SSAS to enable assets to be transferred without incurring inheritance tax (IHT).
2. Self-invested personal pensions (SIPPs)
SIPPs are a type of personal pension. They are an individual contract between you and the pension provider. However, SIPPs offer much wider investment powers than are generally available for personal pensions and group personal pensions. The wider investment powers can allow you to invest in a wide range of assets, including:
- Quoted UK and overseas stocks and shares
- Unlisted Shares
- Collective investments (such as OEICs and unit trusts)
- Investment trusts
- Property and land (but not most residential property) insurance bonds.
A SIPP can also borrow money to purchase some investments. For example, a SIPP can raise a mortgage to part-fund the purchase of a property. Such properties would normally then be rented out and the rental income, received by the SIPP, can be used towards servicing the mortgage repayments and the costs of running the property. Not all SIPPs allow you to invest in the full range of allowable investments. SIPPs that hold specialist investments (such as property) may be liable to pay higher charges than schemes that hold ‘mainstream’ investments.
3 BPR Investments
Business Property Relief (BPR) has been an established part of inheritance tax legislation since 1976. And as an investment incentive, it’s relatively straightforward. Once BPR-qualifying shares have been owned for at least two years, they can be passed on free from inheritance tax on the death of the shareholder. Not every interest in a business will qualify for BPR. Broadly speaking, investments in the following kinds of businesses that carry on a trade rather that investment activities could qualify for BPR, including:
- Shares in qualifying companies that are not listed on any stock exchange.
- Shares in qualifying companies listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM).
- An interest in a qualifying business, such as a partnership.
Most recently, since 2013 investors can hold AIM-listed shares within Individual Savings Accounts (ISAs). This means an ISA that invests specifically in AIM-listed companies expected to qualify for BPR can offer inheritance tax exemption as well as the traditional ISA benefits of tax-free income and capital growth.
4 Venture Capital Trusts
A venture capital trust or VCT is a highly tax efficient UK closed-end collective investment scheme designed to provide private equity capital for small expanding companies, and income (in the form of dividend distributions) and/or capital gains for investors. VCTs are a form of publicly traded private equity. VCTs are listed on the London Stock Exchange, which invest in other companies which are (mostly) not themselves listed. First introduced by the Conservative government in the Finance Act 1995 to encourage investment into new UK businesses, they have proved to be much less risky than originally anticipated.
5 SEIS Investments
6 EIS Investments
EIS INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Here’s a selection of live offers open for investment. You can invest from as little as £100 and build a diversified investment portfolio.